Time Management for Students

Time Management
for Students

When the College Board asked college seniors what contributed to a successful and satisfying career in college, 73% said the, “ability to organize tasks and time effectively.”

What is it that you want
more time to do?

* Managing your time begins with an honest appraisal of what you want to do with it.
* Time management is self-management
* First step is to set your priorities.

Rank order the following pursuits in order of importance to you. Place 1 beside
the most important, 2 beside the second most important, and so on.

* ____ Class attendance
* ____ Relaxation
* ____ Volunteer service
* ____ Time with family
* ____ Exercise
* ____ Clubs/organizations
* ____ Required reading
* ____ Hobbies or entertainment
* ____ Time with girlfriend/boyfriend or spouse
* ____ Studying
* ____ Working at a job
* ____ Religious activities
* ____ Shopping
* ____ Grocery shopping
* ____ Preparing meals
* ____ Housecleaning
* ____ Non-required reading
* ____ Sleeping
* ____ Other: _____________________________

Weekly Expenditure of Time for Personal Needs, Classes, Job, Family Responsibilities, and Commuting

Number of hours per week you need to sleep                    ________

Number of hours per week spent at work                           ________

Number of hours per week spent in class                          ________

Number of hours per week spent commuting                     ________

Number of hours per week used for meals                         ________

Number of hours per week used for personal grooming     ________

Number of hours per week spent on household duties       ________

Number of hours per week spent for church/volunteering  ________

Total number of hours for personal needs     ________

7 days x 24 hours =  168  (Total hours per week)                               minus  _____ (Total number of hours for personal needs =

Number of hours available for study and leisure                _________

Weekly Expenditure of Time in Study

(Reading, Papers, Preparing for Exams, etc.)

Course 1 ____________________________     ______

Course 2 ____________________________     ______

Course 3 ____________________________     ______

Course 4 ____________________________     ______

Course 5 ____________________________     ______

Course 6 ____________________________     ______

Total number of hours of study per week            ______

Number of hours available for study and leisure  _______    minus number of hours of study             _______             equals number of hours available for leisure   _______

Staying on Top of It All

The secret of time management is – getting your work done.

Complete your assignments on time, study for tests, and do your homework.

The difference between knowing about commitments, and actually getting around to doing them is the difference between a poor time manger and a good one.

The advantages to staying ahead of your workload are many:

* You enjoy your work more
* You learn more
* You don’t get stressed out
* You have time for quality
* You get better grades
* You overall college experience is more fulfilling

* Someone who gets their work done early has time to do a quality job.

* Once the work piles up and you get too far behind, it is nearly impossible to catch up.

* Keeping track of what you have to do ensures that you don’t forget to study for a test or keep a commitment.

* Using schedules helps you to see how much work is building up.

* This will help you to spread out your workload, so you are less likely to hit a crunch time and have to pull all-nighters to get everything done.


A calendar that displays one semester at a time will allow you to keep track of important dates and deadlines.

At the beginning of the semester, take the course syllabus for each of your courses and copy onto the calendar the important dates and deadlines such as: test dates, assignment deadlines, and due dates for papers.

Pay special attention to the mid-term and end of the term when many assignments and tests are likely.

Keep your semester schedule out where you can see it so you will always be aware of what’s upcoming, and so you can plan how and where to spend your time.


A weekly schedule will give you a detailed picture of your week’s activities.

Start by filling in your must do’s – work, sleep, class attendance, commuting, etc.

Consider scheduling breaks during the day that you can use for regular study periods.

Too many students schedule their classes back to back in order to minimize the time they spend on campus. Often they find it difficult to find time to study at home or during their regular workweek.

Use the breaks in your daily class schedule to study in the library, form study groups with classmates, get tutoring, and seek help from your instructors.

Be realistic in scheduling study time and make time for your favorite activities.

A schedule is only effective if it suits your personality.


* Make a ‘to do’ list each day to remind you of what you have to do each day.
* Prioritize each item on the list, labeling the most important items A,
* the less important items B,
* and the nice to do items C.
* Be sure to start with the A’s so that you complete the most important items first.
* Go on to your B’s and C’s only if you find you have the time.

Tips For Getting Time On Your Side

* Do it now.  Decide to tackle one of the items on your ‘to do’ list right now and your list will disappear before your know it.

* Say no.  It is tempting to go out with friends instead of study or work on an assignment.  If you can put a higher priority on the schoolwork, the results will be worth the effort.

* Use class time well.  Go to class and be on time.  Listen carefully and take notes.

* Start projects as soon as they are assigned.  Assignments tend to pile up so if you can do some work each week on an assignment you are more likely to have time to add quality to the work and earn a higher grade.

* Divide large tasks into small, manageable chunks of work that can be completed at one sitting.

* Use small pockets of time well.  Utilize time between classes reviewing course material of working on homework.

* Use your best time well.  If you are a morning person schedule your hardest classes and study time in the mornings.  Schedule your hardest work for when you are most alert and effective.

* Stop procrastinating.  Don’t put it off until tomorrow if you can do it today.

* Turn of the television, radio, stereo, cell phone, etc.  Focus on studying without distractions.  Enjoy your favorite shows or music as a reward when the schoolwork is finished.

* Study difficult subjects first.

Time Consumers

* Talking with friends
* Talking on telephone
* Daydreaming
* Watching television
* Sleeping
* Listening to music
* Drop-in visitors
* Reading (other than assignments)
* Playing sports, games, or hobbies
* Doing household chores
* Partying and goofing around
* Snacking and eating
* Hanging out
* Procrastinating or worrying

Which Voices Guide Your Actions?

Take Action Voices:

* Let’s get it over with.
* It’s already late.
* You know it, just do it.
* They’ll be pleased with what I’ve done.

Do It Later Voices:

* I don’t feel like it .
* There’s still time.
* I’ll do it later.

* This other thing is more important.

Take Action Voices:

* It’s a challenge.

* It’ll be fun when I get into it.
* Once I get started, it will go quickly.
* If I don’t do it now, I’ll have to do it later.

Do It Later Voices:

* I’ll be better prepared later.
* It may solve itself if I wait.
* If I wait someone else may do it.
* I need more information.

Time management really means managing yourself.

It’s a way to be happier, more effective, and more successful.



  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_basic_management_topics
  2. http://management.about.com/
  3. http://www.managementhelp.org/

Managing Yourself

  1. http://www.geog.leeds.ac.uk/courses/other/casestudies/Managing.ppt
  2. http://www.icai.ie/documents/Sean%20McLoughney%20-%20Time%20Management.pdf
  3. http://www1.umn.edu/osci/download/Lennick_leadership_07.pdf
  4. http://classes.bus.oregonstate.edu/ba491/Slides%20-%20Chapters%2010-13/13.ppt

Leadership Training

ERCs as Leadership Training Grounds

Kelvin K. Droegemeier

University of Oklahoma

ERC Annual Meeting

17 November 2005

What Does the Word “Leadership” Mean to You?


What Came to Mind When You Saw the Title of This Session and What Made You Attend?

We’re Bombarded with Material on Leadership but do we Really Understand It?

Key Questions

* How Many of You are in “Leadership Positions” in an ERC?

* How Many of You were Formally Trained or Educated to Lead???
* Was/Is the ERC a Baptism by Fire??


* I believe one of the greatest opportunities within the ERC program is the development and nurturing of leadership skills
o In adults (the traditional ERC “leadership”)
o In students (the next generation)
o  In disciplines
o  In institutions
o  In the research enterprise
* Seizing the opportunity requires deliberate action – it will not happen automatically

Why ERCs?

* ERCs, STCs, and now SLCs are playing a unique and powerful role in the landscape of research and education, teaching us how to deal with
o Exceptionally complex and “potentially transformative” problems
o End-to-end and systems thinking
o Highly multi- and cross-disciplinary themes
o Large & geographically separated teams
o Partnerships with industry
o Involvement of higher education in K-11

Goals for Today

* Develop a better understanding of “leadership”
* Dialog about existing ERC leadership efforts
* Discuss whether leadership should be a more formal part of the ERC portfolio
* Determine how to proceed

The Potential Payoff

* This is not about training the next generation of center directors!
* It’s about teaching people to
o Recognize and embrace their unique abilities and limitations
o Relate effectively to people having different views
o Deal with situations they’ve never faced and that have no known solutions
o Work for a broader purpose while fulfilling their own specific goals and needs
o Draw the best out of others by motivating and inspiring

* “The growth and development of people is the highest calling of leadership.”

– Harvey S. Firestone

The Payoff

* If successful, we WILL train the next generation of center directors and a whole lot more!!

* “Example is not the main thing in influencing others, it is the only thing.”

– Albert Schweitzer

The Continuing Effect…

Leadership: Searching for a Definition

Leadership: Searching for a Definition

* Powerful/influential
* Intelligent
* Mobilize people and resources to work toward a common goal
* Effectuate positive change
* People of high values/standards/ethics – role models
* Well known/famous
* Operate with a mixture of formal and informal authority

But What Makes Them Leaders?

* Money?
* Pedigree/education?
* Beliefs?
* Actions?
* Personalities?
* Looks?
* Connections?
* Work ethic?
* Chance?

* “Leadership is a combination of strategy and character. If you must be without one, be without the strategy.”

– Gen. H. Norman Schwarzkopf

Leadership: Searching for a Definition

* Powerful/influential
* Intelligent
* Mobilize people and resources to work toward a common goal
* Effectuate positive change
* Role models
* People of high values/standards/ethics
* Well known/famous
* Operate exclusively with formal authority, usually by coercion

Leadership:  Searching for a Definition

According to Webster…

* Leadership is the position, office, or term of a leader
* A leader is one who
o Directs
o Guides
o Is in command
o Has influence

That’s Sort of a Useless Working Definition!

* It ignores values/ethics
* It does not describe the work of leadership
* It does not distinguish between a shift worker at a restaurant and 4-star general!

* Leadership is inexorably tied to values, morality, and ethics
* We shape our values early in life, and thereafter our values shape us

Key Facts About Leadership

* Leadership seeks positive outcomes to benefit others – a servant viewpoint

Key Facts About Leadership

* “We make a living by what we get; we make a life by what we give.”

– Winston Churchill

Key Facts About Leadership

* Leadership is called forth by crisis and challenge, but is not produced by it

Leadership: The Deeper Meaning

* Does leadership mean influencing a community to follow the leader’s vision?

* Does leadership mean influencing a community to follow the leader’s vision?
* Influencing the community to face its problems – mobilizing, motivating, organizing, orienting, focusing attention, and then acting together?

Leadership: The Deeper Meaning

“Leader” of a Baseball Team??

Leadership and Management

* Leadership and Management are very different, though some confuse them as being nearly synonymous
* Few people are effective leaders and managers

Leadership and Management

* Management
o is about coping
with complexity
o brings order and
consistency out
of potential chaos
o applies known
solutions and

Leadership and Management

* Leadership
o is about coping
with or planning
especially if
it’s sudden

* “Management is efficiency in climbing the ladder of success; leadership determines whether the ladder is leaning against the right wall.”

– Stephen R. Covey

Leadership and Management: Parallel but Not Equal

* Management
o Creating a plan
o Defining steps
o Establishing a
o Allocating
o Executing the plan
o Controlling situations
and solving problems

Leadership and Management: Parallel but Not Equal

* Leadership
o Developing a vision
and setting direction
o Defining strategies
o Aligning, motivating,
and inspiring people
o Testing reality
o Delegating work

Important Facts

* Management controls people by pushing them in the right direction
* Leadership motivates people by drawing them in a way that satisfies the basic human needs for
o achievement
o recognition
o self-esteem
o a sense of belonging

Major Tenants of Leadership

* Leadership involves coping with or producing useful change in response to challenges, problems or opportunities
* Leadership can be exercised with or without formal authority

Major Tenants of Leadership

* Leadership involves coping with or producing useful change in response to challenges, problems or opportunities
* Leadership can be exercised with or without formal authority

Producing Useful Change

* Problems — when circumstances do not conform to the way we think things ought to be
* Two solutions
o Apply a known technical fix (management)
o Develop solutions that previously were unknown (leadership) – known as adaptive change

Adaptive Change

* When no set of technical fixes or authoritative directive will work
* The solution is adaptation to changing circumstances and norms
* Adaptive work is needed when
o Deeply held beliefs are challenged
o Legitimate yet competing views emerge
* ERCs are perhaps prototypical for having to do adaptive work!!

* The learning required to address conflicts in the values people hold, or to diminish the gap between the values they stand for and the reality they face
* It does not mean passively “giving in” to circumstances
* It does require that one clarify what matters most in balance with trade-offs
o People want independence from foreign oil but don’t want to drill in ANWR
o Trade-offs happen frequently in ERCs and often they leave people angry!!!

Adaptive Change

Major Tenants of Leadership

* Leadership involves coping with or producing useful change in response to challenges, problems or opportunities
* Leadership can be exercised with or without formal authority

Leading With Formal Authority

* Conferred in exchange for protection, direction, conflict control
* Based on a set of expectations or a job description
* Essentially a formal contract – it can be revoked or walked away from
* Pros and cons
o Breadth and completeness of information
o Must operate within specific bounds
o Must operate at a distance from the front lines

Leading With Formal Authority

Leading With Informal Authority

* Based upon trust, reputation, civility, admiration, creativity and availability
* It can never be revoked, though the trust relationship can be broken and the reputation damaged
* This is the most powerful type of authority
o Can deviate from norms of decision making
o Can focus on hard issues
o Can get closer to the experiences of the stakeholders down in the trenches, where relationships are developed

Leading With Informal Authority

Key Characteristics of Leaders

* A true leader is likely to be one who has no desire to lead, but is forced into a position of leadership by the press of the external situation.
* I believe it might be accepted as a fairly reliable rule of thumb that the man who is ambitious to lead is disqualified as a leader. (A.W. Tozer)
* The true leader will be as ready to follow as to lead, and when a wiser and more gifted man than himself appears, he will step aside.

Is Leadership “A Part of Who You Are,” or Can it be Learned?

The Key is Intelligence!

* Part I: Intellect
o Intellectual capacity (IQ)
o Technical expertise
o Knowledge and experience

The Key is Intelligence!

* Part I: Intellect
o Intellectual capacity (IQ)
o Technical expertise
o Knowledge and experience
* Part II: Emotions
o 90% of the difference between outstanding and average leaders is due to emotional intelligence (EI)
o It’s twice as important as IQ and technical expertise combined
o It is THE differentiating factor in leadership

Yes, Emotions!!

* A lot of really smart people have zero sensitivity
* There are many smart people in the world – MUCH SMARTER than any of us!
* What distinguishes each of us is our personality and emotional make-up
* Emotions are not a liability, but an asset!

* People are persuaded by reason, but moved by emotion; [the leader] must both persuade them and move them.”

– Richard M. Nixon

Emotional Intelligence (EI)

* The capacity for recognizing our feelings and those of others; for motivating ourselves and others; for managing emotions in ourselves and in our relationships
o Understanding yourself (self-awareness)
o Managing yourself (self-regulation)
o Understanding others (empathy)
o Managing others (motivation, social skills)

Emotional Intelligence (EI)

* All of the great US presidents had high degrees of emotional intelligence
* You need intellect to get in the door – it is a threshold requirement
* But EI is the differentiating factor BY A HUGE MARGIN
* It is developed from emotional competencies, which are learned capabilities that contribute to effective performance and satisfying relationships in life
* Like competencies in math, physics, but on the emotional side

This Professor Has it Wrong!!

* A great deal more can be said
* A great deal more NEEDS to be said and infused into ERCs

This is a Glimpse…

Next Steps

* I propose that leadership is extremely important to the ERC enterprise and that leadership development should be included a formal part of its portfolio
* Many centers already include leadership in various forms but we should consider taking it to the next level
* ERCs should be the standard by which other programs are measured


KAIZEN Ciri khusus Manufaktur Jepang

KAIZEN Ciri khusus Manufaktur Jepang


Dalam kurun waktu 40 tahun sesudah PD-II, Jepang merupakan negara adikuasa dibidang ekonomi melalui lima masa peralihan yang paling hebat, yaitu penyerapan teknologi besar-besaran dari AS dan Eropa, merangsang produksi dalam jumlah besar, program penyempurnaan mutu secara menyeluruh (diilhami oleh Dr. Deming dan Dr. Juran dari AS), penyempurnaan cara kerja untuk memproduksi barang sebesar-besarnya dan pendekatan lingkungan agar bersahabat.

Konsep dari kelima peralihan itu dijalankan dengan menggunakan strategi yang canggih yaitu KAIZEN.

KAIZEN berasal dari bahasa Jepang yang artinya ‘penyempurnaan’ atau ‘perbaikan’ berkesinambungan yang melibatkan semua orang, baik manajemen puncak, manajer maupun seluruh karyawan, karena KAIZEN adalah tanggung jawab setiap individu/orang. KAIZEN dibagi menjadi 3 segmen, tergantung kebutuhan masing-masing perusahaan, yaitu:

  • KAIZEN yang berorientasi pada Manajemen, memusatkan perhatiannya pada masalah logistik dan strategis yang terpenting dan memberikan momentum untuk mengejar kemajuan dan moral.
  • KAIZEN yang berorientasi pada Kelompok, dilaksanakan oleh gugus kendali mutu, kelompok Jinshu Kansi/manajemen sukarela menggunakan alat statistik untuk memecahkan masalah, menganalisa, melaksanakan dan menetapkan standar/prosedur baru.
  • KAIZEN yang berorientasi pada Individu, dimanifestasikan dalam bentuk saran, dimana seseorang harus bekerja lebih pintar bila tidak mau bekerja keras.

Beberapa point penting dalam proses penerapan KAIZEN yaitu :

1.   Konsep 3M (Muda, Mura, dan Muri) dalam istilah Jepang.

Konsep ini dibentuk untuk mengurangi kelelahan, meningkatkan mutu, mempersingkat waktu dan mengurangi atau efsiensi biaya. Muda diartikan sebagai mengurangi pemborosan, Mura diartikan sebagai mengurangi perbedaan dan Muri diartikan sebagai mengurangi ketegangan.

2.   Gerakkan 5S (Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu dan Shitsuke)

Seiri artinya membereskan tempat kerja. Seiton berarti menyimpan dengan teratur. Seiso berarti memelihara tempat kerja supaya tetap bersih. Seiketsu berarti kebersihan pribadi. Seiketsu berarti disiplin, dengan selalu mentaati prosedur ditempat kerja.

3.   Konsep PDCA dalam KAIZEN

Setiap aktivitas usaha yang kita lakukan perlu dilakukan dengan prosedur yang benar guna mencapai tujuan yang kita harapkan.Maka PDCA (Plan, Do, Check dan Action) harus dilakukan terus menerus.

4.   Konsep 5W + 1H

Salah satu alat pola pikir untuk menjalankan roda PDCA dalam kegiatan KAIZEN adalah dengan teknik bertanya dengan pertanyaan dasar 5W + 1H ( What, Who, Why, Where, When  dan How).

Setelah berhasil menerapkan tehnologi asing, kemudian memproduksi barang secara besar-besaran dan mengendalikan mutu sebaik-baiknya, industri Jepang saat itu memusatkan perhatiannya pada penyempurnaan sistim kerja dalam bidang teknologi produksi. Ini berarti mereka memilki kesanggupan untuk memenuhi/mengikuti keinginan pelanggan dan kebutuhan pasar dalam waktu yang singkat. Kuncinya adalah mekanisasi, otomatisasi, robotisasi dan sistiem yang saling berkaitan.

 Sekali lagi KAIZEN adalah tanggung jawab setiap orang. Konsep KAIZEN sangat penting untuk menjelaskan perbedaan antara pandangan Jepang dan pandangan Barat terhadap manajemen. Perbedaan konsep yang paling mendasar adalah “KAIZEN Jepang dan cara berpikirnya berorientasi pada proses, sedangkan cara Barat berorientasi pada hasil kerja”

 KAIZEN hanyalah salah satu ciri khusus manufaktur pada perusahaan Jepang, karena masih banyak konsep-konsep lain yang selalu bermunculan, karena Jepang selalu berpikir bahwa tidak satu hari pun boleh berlalu tanpa sesuatu tindakan penyempurnaan dalam perusahaan.


Diproteksi: Tris

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