Leadership Training

ERCs as Leadership Training Grounds

Kelvin K. Droegemeier

University of Oklahoma

ERC Annual Meeting

17 November 2005

What Does the Word “Leadership” Mean to You?

Or…

What Came to Mind When You Saw the Title of This Session and What Made You Attend?

We’re Bombarded with Material on Leadership but do we Really Understand It?

Key Questions

* How Many of You are in “Leadership Positions” in an ERC?

* How Many of You were Formally Trained or Educated to Lead???
* Was/Is the ERC a Baptism by Fire??

Proposition

* I believe one of the greatest opportunities within the ERC program is the development and nurturing of leadership skills
o In adults (the traditional ERC “leadership”)
o In students (the next generation)
o  In disciplines
o  In institutions
o  In the research enterprise
* Seizing the opportunity requires deliberate action – it will not happen automatically

Why ERCs?

* ERCs, STCs, and now SLCs are playing a unique and powerful role in the landscape of research and education, teaching us how to deal with
o Exceptionally complex and “potentially transformative” problems
o End-to-end and systems thinking
o Highly multi- and cross-disciplinary themes
o Large & geographically separated teams
o Partnerships with industry
o Involvement of higher education in K-11

Goals for Today

* Develop a better understanding of “leadership”
* Dialog about existing ERC leadership efforts
* Discuss whether leadership should be a more formal part of the ERC portfolio
* Determine how to proceed

The Potential Payoff

* This is not about training the next generation of center directors!
* It’s about teaching people to
o Recognize and embrace their unique abilities and limitations
o Relate effectively to people having different views
o Deal with situations they’ve never faced and that have no known solutions
o Work for a broader purpose while fulfilling their own specific goals and needs
o Draw the best out of others by motivating and inspiring

* “The growth and development of people is the highest calling of leadership.”

– Harvey S. Firestone

The Payoff

* If successful, we WILL train the next generation of center directors and a whole lot more!!

* “Example is not the main thing in influencing others, it is the only thing.”

– Albert Schweitzer

The Continuing Effect…

Leadership: Searching for a Definition

Leadership: Searching for a Definition

* Powerful/influential
* Intelligent
* Mobilize people and resources to work toward a common goal
* Effectuate positive change
* People of high values/standards/ethics – role models
* Well known/famous
* Operate with a mixture of formal and informal authority

But What Makes Them Leaders?

* Money?
* Pedigree/education?
* Beliefs?
* Actions?
* Personalities?
* Looks?
* Connections?
* Work ethic?
* Chance?

* “Leadership is a combination of strategy and character. If you must be without one, be without the strategy.”

– Gen. H. Norman Schwarzkopf

Leadership: Searching for a Definition

* Powerful/influential
* Intelligent
* Mobilize people and resources to work toward a common goal
* Effectuate positive change
* Role models
* People of high values/standards/ethics
* Well known/famous
* Operate exclusively with formal authority, usually by coercion

Leadership:  Searching for a Definition

According to Webster…

* Leadership is the position, office, or term of a leader
* A leader is one who
o Directs
o Guides
o Is in command
o Has influence

That’s Sort of a Useless Working Definition!

* It ignores values/ethics
* It does not describe the work of leadership
* It does not distinguish between a shift worker at a restaurant and 4-star general!

* Leadership is inexorably tied to values, morality, and ethics
* We shape our values early in life, and thereafter our values shape us

Key Facts About Leadership

* Leadership seeks positive outcomes to benefit others – a servant viewpoint

Key Facts About Leadership

* “We make a living by what we get; we make a life by what we give.”

– Winston Churchill

Key Facts About Leadership

* Leadership is called forth by crisis and challenge, but is not produced by it

Leadership: The Deeper Meaning

* Does leadership mean influencing a community to follow the leader’s vision?

* Does leadership mean influencing a community to follow the leader’s vision?
…or
* Influencing the community to face its problems – mobilizing, motivating, organizing, orienting, focusing attention, and then acting together?

Leadership: The Deeper Meaning

“Leader” of a Baseball Team??

Leadership and Management

* Leadership and Management are very different, though some confuse them as being nearly synonymous
* Few people are effective leaders and managers

Leadership and Management

* Management
o is about coping
with complexity
o brings order and
consistency out
of potential chaos
o applies known
solutions and
strategies

Leadership and Management

* Leadership
o is about coping
with or planning
change,
especially if
it’s sudden

* “Management is efficiency in climbing the ladder of success; leadership determines whether the ladder is leaning against the right wall.”

– Stephen R. Covey

Leadership and Management: Parallel but Not Equal

* Management
o Creating a plan
o Defining steps
o Establishing a
structure
o Allocating
resources
o Executing the plan
o Controlling situations
and solving problems

Leadership and Management: Parallel but Not Equal

* Leadership
o Developing a vision
and setting direction
o Defining strategies
o Aligning, motivating,
and inspiring people
o Testing reality
o Delegating work

Important Facts

* Management controls people by pushing them in the right direction
* Leadership motivates people by drawing them in a way that satisfies the basic human needs for
o achievement
o recognition
o self-esteem
o a sense of belonging

Major Tenants of Leadership

* Leadership involves coping with or producing useful change in response to challenges, problems or opportunities
* Leadership can be exercised with or without formal authority

Major Tenants of Leadership

* Leadership involves coping with or producing useful change in response to challenges, problems or opportunities
* Leadership can be exercised with or without formal authority

Producing Useful Change

* Problems — when circumstances do not conform to the way we think things ought to be
* Two solutions
o Apply a known technical fix (management)
o Develop solutions that previously were unknown (leadership) – known as adaptive change

Adaptive Change

* When no set of technical fixes or authoritative directive will work
* The solution is adaptation to changing circumstances and norms
* Adaptive work is needed when
o Deeply held beliefs are challenged
o Legitimate yet competing views emerge
* ERCs are perhaps prototypical for having to do adaptive work!!

* The learning required to address conflicts in the values people hold, or to diminish the gap between the values they stand for and the reality they face
* It does not mean passively “giving in” to circumstances
* It does require that one clarify what matters most in balance with trade-offs
o People want independence from foreign oil but don’t want to drill in ANWR
o Trade-offs happen frequently in ERCs and often they leave people angry!!!

Adaptive Change

Major Tenants of Leadership

* Leadership involves coping with or producing useful change in response to challenges, problems or opportunities
* Leadership can be exercised with or without formal authority

Leading With Formal Authority

* Conferred in exchange for protection, direction, conflict control
* Based on a set of expectations or a job description
* Essentially a formal contract – it can be revoked or walked away from
* Pros and cons
o Breadth and completeness of information
o Must operate within specific bounds
o Must operate at a distance from the front lines

Leading With Formal Authority

Leading With Informal Authority

* Based upon trust, reputation, civility, admiration, creativity and availability
* It can never be revoked, though the trust relationship can be broken and the reputation damaged
* This is the most powerful type of authority
o Can deviate from norms of decision making
o Can focus on hard issues
o Can get closer to the experiences of the stakeholders down in the trenches, where relationships are developed

Leading With Informal Authority

Key Characteristics of Leaders

* A true leader is likely to be one who has no desire to lead, but is forced into a position of leadership by the press of the external situation.
* I believe it might be accepted as a fairly reliable rule of thumb that the man who is ambitious to lead is disqualified as a leader. (A.W. Tozer)
* The true leader will be as ready to follow as to lead, and when a wiser and more gifted man than himself appears, he will step aside.

Is Leadership “A Part of Who You Are,” or Can it be Learned?

The Key is Intelligence!

* Part I: Intellect
o Intellectual capacity (IQ)
o Technical expertise
o Knowledge and experience

The Key is Intelligence!

* Part I: Intellect
o Intellectual capacity (IQ)
o Technical expertise
o Knowledge and experience
* Part II: Emotions
o 90% of the difference between outstanding and average leaders is due to emotional intelligence (EI)
o It’s twice as important as IQ and technical expertise combined
o It is THE differentiating factor in leadership

Yes, Emotions!!

* A lot of really smart people have zero sensitivity
* There are many smart people in the world – MUCH SMARTER than any of us!
* What distinguishes each of us is our personality and emotional make-up
* Emotions are not a liability, but an asset!

* People are persuaded by reason, but moved by emotion; [the leader] must both persuade them and move them.”

– Richard M. Nixon

Emotional Intelligence (EI)

* The capacity for recognizing our feelings and those of others; for motivating ourselves and others; for managing emotions in ourselves and in our relationships
o Understanding yourself (self-awareness)
o Managing yourself (self-regulation)
o Understanding others (empathy)
o Managing others (motivation, social skills)

Emotional Intelligence (EI)

* All of the great US presidents had high degrees of emotional intelligence
* You need intellect to get in the door – it is a threshold requirement
* But EI is the differentiating factor BY A HUGE MARGIN
* It is developed from emotional competencies, which are learned capabilities that contribute to effective performance and satisfying relationships in life
* Like competencies in math, physics, but on the emotional side

This Professor Has it Wrong!!

* A great deal more can be said
* A great deal more NEEDS to be said and infused into ERCs

This is a Glimpse…

Next Steps

* I propose that leadership is extremely important to the ERC enterprise and that leadership development should be included a formal part of its portfolio
* Many centers already include leadership in various forms but we should consider taking it to the next level
* ERCs should be the standard by which other programs are measured

Sumber